Taking indication from the book, Nations and Nationalism, I understand the concept of Nation and State as two different islands, formed independently, without the support from the other one and a bridge that links them is Nationalism (Gellner 1983). The people who consider themselves as part of a nation are more homogeneous group in terms of religion, culture, language etc., and tend to be psychologically connected as against the State which has a geographic boundary and heterogeneous mixture of people from diverse groups. However, the purpose of this essay is not to define these concepts, but to understand if there is any relationship between people identifying themselves as belonging to one particular nation and whether this
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This exacerbation among the people had its effects on the cultural aspects of the nation ‘These new-found tensions which are present at all stages in the real nature of colonialism have their repercussions on the cultural plane’ (ibid). In the literary context, plenty of patriotic poems and articles were written – one such famous slogan “Bande Matharam” (Chatterji 1882) meaning, I salute to the mother nation gave a sense of belonging and patriotism among masses. The Country was personified (Carr 1945) as a mother to unite the people. The word of mouth propaganda on anti-British sentiments were spread across the length and breadth of the country. The ‘swadesi’ movement – be Indian and buy Indian, was a huge success through the oral propaganda. Both the culture and the struggle for freedom goes hand in hand (Fanon 1963) and these changes in the cultural aspects and the struggle for freedom boosted the “National Identity” and this was one major factor that resulted in Independence in 1947.
The new nation, India faced similar problems as that of Africa namely democratization and poor socioeconomic status (Mamdani 1996). There were more than five hundred princely states at the time of independence in India. However, as opposed to the African context, it was the inclination of Sardar Patel and his tremendous efforts integrated those diverse princely States in to Indian union. ‘He