As of 2007, seventy percent of malaria cases were found in Africa. (Sadasivaiah, 2007) Eleven countries in Africa, 7 in Asia, and 5 in Latin America use dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or DDT for vector control (Turusov, 2002). DDT was banned for use in the United States and other countries and is one of 12 chemicals identified as a persistent organic pollutant that can be harmful to humans and animals. However, in many parts of the world, DDT is the most effective and efficient way to kill vectors that carry malaria. (WHO, 2007). The World Health Organization (“WHO”) determined in 2000 that a reevaluation of studies showed levels of exposure reported in prior studies were below levels of concern for human health (WHO, 2007). The WHO
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According to information provided by the ATSDR in its “TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR DDT, DDE, and DDD” there have been no effects “reported in adults given small daily doses of DDT by capsule for 18 months (up to 35 milligrams [mg] every day). People exposed for a long time to small amounts of DDT (less than 20 mg per day), such as people who worked in factories where DDT was made, had some minor changes in the levels of liver enzymes in the blood.” ATSDR (2002) .The CDC found a low level irritation when inhaled ATSDR (2002).
ATSDR (2002) outlines the four phases of disposition to assess the toxicity of DDT. The four phases in order are absorption, distribution, metabolism and finally elimination or excretion. (ATSDR, 2002). DDT can enter the body through inhalation, orally or through the skin (ATSDR, 2002). DDT has been shown to be more toxic when absorbed through the mouth than when it is exposed to the skin. WHO (2007) Absorption starts with DDT coming in contact with membranes. Since DDT is soluble in lipids, it makes its way through the body through passive diffusion. (ATSDR, 2002). DDT is highly absorbed because it is so soluble in lipids and this is why so many living things have traces of DDT. Distribution occurs through lymph and blood flow, “uptake into tissues is a function of the blood