Global Issues within the First Civilizations Essay

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The First Civilizations of the world were the stepping-stone into modern society, and the original basis as to what our modern society has become. Reading through the assigned text in Ways of the World: A Brief Global History by Robert W. Strayer, in the chapter titled “First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies”, the reader is introduced into what evolved into the world in which we currently live in. (Please note that the writer will be referring to text from Strayer’s 2011 edition of the text, in comparison to the modern version.) The entire chapter discusses the way that the civilizations emerged, as well as how equality was eventually diminished from the society, Mesoamerica, and the six civilizations themselves: Olmec, …show more content…
If the citizen(s) could not export to a new land in an unproblematic fashion, they would be taken into the “winning” citizen’s society and considered to be a “lower class” citizen. “A strong and highly organized state was a decided advantage in such competition. Because losers could not easily flee to new lands, they were absorbed into the winner’s society as a lower class. Successful leaders of the winning side emerged as an elite with an enlarged base of land, a class of subordinated workers, and a powerful state at their disposal – in short a civilization. (Strayer, 92)
An inequality that still reigns in today’s society is patriarchy, or male dominance. The initial civilizations began as completely equal agriculturally oriented villages where the only difference in between the two genders was loosely based off of the Hunter-Gatherer system, where men were generally considered to hunt for protein, while women generally gathered things that didn’t potentially lead to blood and gore. According to the text, the second millennium offered many different laws that sought to implement “patriarchal family lifestyles” that gave women paternalistic protection while they submitted to their husband’s accepted domination. For example, in Mesopotamian civilization, if a married woman was caught fornicating with any man other than her husband, he [the husband] had the ability to have her killed at his desire… but a

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