Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development Essay

891 Words 4 Pages
According to Magill, “Erik Erikson's identified the eight stages of psychosocial development which to cover a specific period of time and is biologically based” (Magill, 1998, p. 225). Erikson wanted to try to combine Sigmund Freud’s emphasis on sexual drives with the emphasis on social motive stress by other theorist (Wittig, Belkin, & Wittig, 1990, p. 279). The stages will be discussed later in the essay. I will be also giving a brief history introduction of Erik Erikson.
Erik Erikson Erik Erikson was born in 1902 in Frankfurt, Germany. His mother and stepfather were both Jewish. As a child, Erikson was considered an outsider due the blonde hair and blue eyes. During his adulthood, he graduated from Psychoanalytic Institute
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The syntonic element is the harmonious or positive, where the dystonic element is the opposite, disruptive or negative. This two together created a psychosocial crisis faced by the individual.
Muscular-Anal Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt This stage involved the early childhood life where the child experiences the psychosocial conflict of autonomy versus shame and doubt. As the child continues to develop, they are able to do certain tasks. Also, the child is learning how to walk, talk, and feed his or herself and talk. The child learns to hold on to objects and say small words like “no”. When the child is learning how to walk, he or she will hold on to something until they feel ready to let go of the object. According to the Webster Dictionary, autonomy is the state of existing or acting separately of others. (Merriam-Webster, 2014) For example, when the child starts to toilet train they feel independent and they can use the toilet without his or her parent being in the room. Erikson understood that children need some form of independence from their parents with some supervision. Just like the first stage the child needs to experience a syntonic and dystonic element to meet they can have an optimum development.
The positive element is that the child must take more responsibility for his or herself such as feeding, toileting, and

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