Dyslexia is a neurological-based, specific learning disability, characterized by language handling deficiencies, impairment in the ability to recognize and translate words into sentences. It is said that a reading disability reflects a continuous deficit as opposed to an arrest in development and can occur in a person of any level of intelligence. Dyslexia can be related to hormonal or hereditary influences, or brain injury. One in five children are thought to have dyslexia and it is found to be more prevalent in males.(1) The difficulties caused by dyslexia do not accurately measure the sufferer's intelligence. Geniuses of our time, such as Einstein, have been affected by the problems of automatic decoding of words and
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The link between the angular gyrus and the occipital and temporal lobes appears to be almost disconnected, causing problems between visual and auditory processing.(5) Problems in the corpus callosum are blamed for poor reading abilities. The right hemisphere of the brain recognizes a word as connected to a definition. The left hemisphere is in charge of putting the sounds of the word together to make it audible.(6) The corpus callosum is the bridge between the two sides of the brain; if this bridge is weak or faulty, then signals will not transfer well. Lack of proper signaling results in a breakdown of communication, which leads to understanding and execution difficulties. Doctor Harold Levinson's major research findings in the early 1970s helped to back this up. His research was able to demonstrate that learning disabilities(i.e. dyslexia) were due to a "simple signal-scrambling disturbance of the inner-ear"(7) Without the ability of a fully functioning inner-ear, signals get crossed and lost, resulting in a general confusion that inhibits learning and comprehension. It is also thought that the language sectors of the brain in a person with dyslexia are smaller than that of a non-dyslectic.
Furthered research on reading difficulties allows for a better understanding not only of the disorders, but also to how